## Thermodynamics

## DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow $13.95

The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flowhandbook explains all you need to know about Thermodynamics and the three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. If you plan to do any solar heating experiments, or just want to understand and improve your home’s heating systems, this book will prove INVALUABLE. The handbook also describes the properties of fluids, the relationship between the different types of energy in a fluid stream through the use of Bernoulli's equation and discusses the causes of head loss in fluid systems and the factors that affect head loss. This book will provide you with the basic understanding of Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow needed to be part of the hydrogen revolution.

**DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ****THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER,AND FLUID FLOW **

**VOLUMES 1-3
**

The *Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks *consist of ten academic subjects, which include Mathematics; Classical Physics; Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow; Instrumentation and Control; Electrical Science; Material Science; Mechanical Science; Chemistry; Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings; and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. The handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules.

The *Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook *was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the thermal sciences. The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide you with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems. The * Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow * handbook presents enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.

The * Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow *handbook consists of three modules that are contained in three volumes. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook.

# Volume 1 of 3

**Module 1 - Thermodynamics**

*-Explanation- This module explains the properties of fluids and how those properties are affected by various processes. The module also explains how energy balances can be performed on facility systems or components and how efficiency can be calculated.*

__ Constant Pressure Heat Addition__

*Consider the plot on the temperature-volume diagram of Figure 7, viewing the constant-pressure line that represents the states through which the water of the previous discussion passes as it is heated from the initial state of 14.7 psia and 60°F. Let state A represent the initial state and state B represent the start of the saturated liquid line (212°F). Therefore, line AB represents the process in which the liquid is heated from the initial temperature to the saturation temperature.
Point C is the saturated vapor state, and line BC is the constant-temperature process in which the change of phase from liquid to vapor occurs. Line CD represents the process in which the steam is super-heated at constant pressure. Temperature and volume both increase during the process.
Now let the process take place at a constant pressure of 100 psia, beginning from an initial temperature of 60°F. Point E represents the initial state, the specific volume being slightly less than 14.7 psia and 60°F. Vaporization now begins at point F, where the temperature is 327.8°F. Point G is the saturated-vapor state, and line GH is the constant-pressure process in which the steam is superheated.
In a similar manner, a constant pressure of 1000 psia is represented by line IJKL, the saturation temperature being 544.6°F.*

*It is sometimes useful to plot on the Mollier diagram the processes that occur during the cycle. This is done on Figure 38. The numbered points on Figure 38 correspond to the numbered points on Figures 35 and 36. Because the Mollier diagram is a plot of the conditions existing for water in vapor form, the portions of the plot which fall into the region of liquid water do not show up on the Mollier diagram. The following conditions were used in plotting the curves on Figure 38.*

*Point 1: Saturated steam at 540oF*

*Point 2: 82.5% quality at exit of HP turbine*

*Point 3: Temperature of superheated steam is 440oF*

*Point 4: Condenser vacuum is 1 psia*

*The solid lines on Figure 38 represent the conditions for a cycle which uses ideal turbines as verified by the fact that no entropy change is shown across the turbines. The dotted lines on Figure 38 represent the path taken if real turbines were considered, in which case an increase in entropy is evident.*

# THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

## Mass and Weight

Specific Volume

Density

Specific Gravity

Humidity

Intensive and Extensive Properties

Summary

# TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

## Temperature

Temperature Scales

Pressure

Pressure Scales

Summary

# ENERGY, WORK, AND HEAT

## Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Specific Internal Energy

Specific P-V Energy

Specific Enthalpy

Work

Heat

Entropy

Energy and Power Equivalences

Summary

# THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES

## Thermodynamic Systems and Surroundings

Types of Thermodynamic Systems

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Control Volume

Steady State

Thermodynamic Process

Cyclic Process

Reversible Process

Irreversible Process

Adiabatic Process

Isentropic Process

Polytropic Process

Throttling Process

Summary

# CHANGE OF PHASE

## Classification of Properties

Saturation

Saturated and Subcooled Liquids

Quality

Moisture Content

Saturated and Superheated Vapors

Constant Pressure Heat Addition

Critical Point

Fusion

Sublimation

Triple Point

Condensation

Summary

# PROPERTY DIAGRAMS AND STEAM TABLES

## Property Diagrams

Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagram

Pressure-Specific Volume (P-v) Diagram

## Pressure-Enthalpy (P-h) Diagram

## Enthalpy-Temperature (h-T) Diagram

Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram

Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram

Steam Tables

Summary

# FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

## First Law of Thermodynamics

Summary

# SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

## Second Law of Thermodynamics

Entropy

Carnot’s Principle

Carnot Cycle

Diagrams of Ideal and Real Processes

Power Plant Components

Heat Rejection

Typical Steam Cycle

Causes of Inefficiency

Summary

# COMPRESSION PROCESSES

## Boyle’s and Charles’ Law

Ideal Gas Law

Fluid

Compressibility of Fluids

Constant Pressure Process

Constant Volume Process

Effects of Pressure Changes on Fluid Properties

Effects of Temperature Changes on Fluid Properties

Summary

# APPENDIX A Thermodynamics

Volume 2 of 3

**Module 2 - Heat Transfer**

## Heat and Temperature

## Conduction

## Convection

## Thermal Radiation

## Heat Exchangers

## Boiling

## Heat Generation

## Reactor Decay Heat Production

## Introduction

## Mass Flow Rate

## Flow Regimes

## General Energy Equation

## Head Loss

## Forced and Natural Circulation

## Two-Phase Fluid Flow

## Energy Conversion in a Centrifugal Pump

-Explanation- This module describes conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer. The module also explains how specific parameters can affect the rate of heat transfer.

*Single-phase heat exchangers are usually of the tube-and-shell type; that is, the exchanger consists of a set of tubes in a container called a shell (Figure 8). At the ends of the heat exchanger, the tube-side fluid is separated from the shell-side fluid by a tube sheet. The design of two-phase exchangers is essentially the same as that of single-phase exchangers.*

*Four regions are represented in Figure 13. The first and second regions show that as heat flux increases, the temperature difference (surface to fluid) does not change very much. Better heat transfer occurs during nucleate boiling than during natural convection. As the heat flux increases, the bubbles become numerous enough that partial film boiling (part of the surface being blanketed with bubbles) occurs. This region is characterized by an increase in temperature difference and a decrease in heat flux. The increase in temperature difference thus causes total film boiling, in which steam completely blankets the heat transfer surface.*

*A radial temperature profile across a reactor core (assuming all channel coolant flows are equal) will basically follow the radial power distribution. The areas with the highest heat generation rate (power) will produce the most heat and have the highest temperatures. A radial temperature profile for an individual fuel rod and coolant channel is shown in Figure 17. The basic shape of the profile will be dependent upon the heat transfer coefficient of the various materials involved. The temperature differential across each material will have to be sufficient to transfer the heat produced. Therefore, if we know the heat transfer coefficient for each material and the heat flux, we can calculate peak fuel temperatures for a given coolant temperature.*

# HEAT TRANSFER TERMINOLOGY

## Heat and Temperature

Heat and Work

Modes of Transferring Heat

Heat Flux

Thermal Conductivity

Log Mean Temperature Difference

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Bulk Temperature

Summary

# CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER

## Conduction

Conduction-Rectangular Coordinates

Equivalent Resistance Method

Electrical Analogy

Conduction-Cylindrical Coordinates

Summary

# CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

## Convection

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Convection Heat Transfer

Summary

# RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER

## Thermal Radiation

Black Body Radiation

Emissivity

Radiation Configuration Factor

Summary

# HEAT EXCHANGERS

## Heat Exchangers

Parallel and Counter-Flow Designs

Non-Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Cooling Towers

Log Mean Temperature Difference Application to Heat Exchangers

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Summary

# BOILING HEAT TRANSFER

## Boiling

Nucleate Boiling

Bulk Boiling

Film Boiling

Departure from Nucleate Boiling and Critical Heat Flux

Summary

# HEAT GENERATION

## Heat Generation

Flux Profiles

Thermal Limits

Average Linear Power Density

Maximum Local Linear Power Density

Temperature Profiles

Volumetric Thermal Source Strength

Fuel Changes During Reactor Operation

## Summary

# DECAY HEAT

## Reactor Decay Heat Production

Calculation of Decay heat

Decay Heat Limits

Decay Heat Removal

Summary

Volume 3 of 3

Module 3 - Fluid Flow

*-Explanation- This module describes the relationship between the different types of energy in a fluid stream through the use of Bernoulli's equation. The module also discusses the causes of head loss in fluid systems and what factors affect head loss.*

*As shown in Figure 1 the pressure at different levels in the tank varies and this causes the fluid to leave the tank at varying velocities. Pressure was defined to be force per unit area. In the case of this tank, the force is due to the weight of the water above the point where the pressure is being determined.*

__Flow Velocity Profiles__

* Not all fluid particles travel at the same velocity within a pipe. The shape of the velocity curve (the velocity profile across any given section of the pipe) depends upon whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. If the flow in a pipe is laminar, the velocity distribution at a cross section will be parabolic in shape with the maximum velocity at the center being about twice the average velocity in the pipe. In turbulent flow, a fairly flat velocity distribution exists across the section of pipe, with the result that the entire fluid flows at a given single value. Figure 5 helps illustrate the above ideas. The velocity of the fluid in contact with the pipe wall is essentially zero and increases the further away from the wall.*

*Note from Figure 5 that the velocity profile depends upon the surface condition of the pipe wall. A smoother wall results in a more uniform velocity profile than a rough pipe wall.*

# CONTINUITY EQUATION

## Introduction

Properties of Fluids

Buoyancy

Compressibility

Relationship Between Depth and Pressure

Pascal’s Law

Control Volume

Volumetric Flow Rate

## Mass Flow Rate

Conservation of Mass

Steady-State Flow

Continuity Equation

Summary

# LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW

## Flow Regimes

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

Flow Velocity Profiles

Average (Bulk) Velocity

Viscosity

Ideal Fluid

Reynolds Number

Summary

# BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

## General Energy Equation

Simplified Bernoulli Equation

Head

Energy Conversions in Fluid Systems

Restrictions on the Simplified Bernoulli Equation

Extended Bernoulli

Application of Bernoulli’s Equation to a Venturi

Summary

# HEAD LOSS

## Head Loss

Friction Factor

Darcy’s Equation

Minor Losses

Equivalent Piping Length

Summary

# NATURAL CIRCULATION

## Forced and Natural Circulation

Thermal Driving Head

Conditions Required for Natural Circulation

Example of Natural Circulation Cooling

Flow Rate and Temperature Difference

Summary

# TWO-PHASE FLUID FLOW

## Two-Phase Fluid Flow

Flow Instability

Pipe Whip

Water Hammer

Pressure spike

Steam Hammer

Operational Considerations

Summary

# CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

## Energy Conversion in a Centrifugal Pump

Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump

Cavitation

Net Positive Suction Head

Pump Laws

System Characteristic Curve

System Operating Point

System Use of Multiple Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel

Centrifugal Pumps in Series

Summary

# APPENDIX B Fluid Flow

*
*

# DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow $13.95

The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flowhandbook explains all you need to know about Thermodynamics and the three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. If you plan to do any solar heating experiments, or just want to understand and improve your home’s heating systems, this book will prove INVALUABLE. The handbook also describes the properties of fluids, the relationship between the different types of energy in a fluid stream through the use of Bernoulli's equation and discusses the causes of head loss in fluid systems and the factors that affect head loss. This book will provide you with the basic understanding of Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow needed to be part of the hydrogen revolution.