## Classical Physics

## DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Classical Physics $13.95

The *Classical Physics *handbook explains crucial concepts of energy, work and power, and how to convert, measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications and experiments. It also includes other incredibly important information on the units used to measure physical properties. For example, the handbook includes how vectors are used to show the net effect of various forces; it also covers Newton's Laws of motion, and how these laws affect motion and static and dynamic forces. This information will provide **YOU** with a foundation for applying engineering concepts. The *Classical **Physics *handbook presents enough information to provide **YOU** with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas and to better understand basic system and equipment operations..

# DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Classical Physics

The *Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks *consist of ten academic subjects, which include Mathematics; Classical Physics; Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow; Instrumentation and Control; Electrical Science; Material Science; Mechanical Science; Chemistry; Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings; and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. The handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules.

The * Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook * was originally developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide individuals with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment. The knowledge in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts. The * Classical Physics * handbook presents enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better

understand basic system and equipment operations.

The * Classical Physics *handbook consists of five modules that are contained in one volume. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook.

**Module 1 - Unit Systems**

*- Explanation- This module presents the concept of unit systems for the fundamental dimensions of mass, length, and time used in physics. Additionally, derivation of units and the conversion of these units is presented.*

__Derived Measurements__

Most physical quantities have units that are combinations of the three * fundamental * dimensions of length, mass, and time. When these dimensions or measurements are combined, they produce what are referred to as *derived *units. This means that they have been "derived" from one or more fundamental measurements. These combinations of fundamental measurements can be the combination of the same or different units. The following are examples of various derived units.

__ Area__

Area is the product of two lengths (e.g., width x length for a rectangle); thus, it has the units of length squared, such as square inches (in.2) or square meters (m2).

1mx1m=1m2

4 in. x 2 in. = 8 in.2

__ Volume__

Volume is the product of three lengths (e.g., length x width x depth for a rectangular solid); thus, it has the units of length cubed, such as cubic inches (in?) or cubic meters (m3). The MKS and CGS unit systems have a specific unit for volume called the liter (l). One liter is equal to 1000 cubic centimeters (1 l= 1000 cm3).

2 in. x 3 in. x 5 in. = 30 in.3__ __

__Density__

Density is a measure of the mass of an object per unit volume; thus, it has units of mass divided by length cubed such as kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) or pounds per cubic foot (lbs/ft).

15 lbs/5 W = 3 lbs/fO

__Velocity__

Velocity is the change in length per unit time; thus, it has units such as kilometers per hour (km/h) or feet per second (ft/s).

# FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSIONS

## Unit Systems

Derived Measurements

Summary

# UNIT CONVERSIONS

## Conversion Factors

Unit Conversion

Steps for Unit Conversion

Summary

**Module 2 - Vectors**

*- Explanation- This module contains information to aid in the determination of the net effect of various forces on an object and includes graphing vectors, adding vectors, and determining component vectors of a resultant vector.*

# SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

## Scalar Quantities

Vector Quantities

Description of a Simple Vector

Examples of Vector Quantities

Summary

# VECTOR IDENTIFICATION

## In Written Materials

Graphic Representation

Graphic Representation of Vectors

Summary

# VECTORS: RESULTANTS AND COMPONENTS

## Resultant

Vector Components

Summary

# GRAPHIC METHOD OF VECTOR ADDITION

## Vector Addition

Methods Used to Add Vectors

Using the Graphic Method

Summary

# COMPONENT ADDITION METHOD

## An Explanation of Components

Using the Component Addition Method

# Summary

# ANALYTICAL METHOD OF VECTOR ADDITION

## Review of Mathematical Functions

Using the Analytical Method

Summary

#

** Module 3 - ** ** Force and Motion**

*-Explanation- * *This module presents Newton's Laws of force and motion.*

In the case where two bodies collide and have identical final velocities, equation 3-10 applies.

^{m}1^{v}1^{
}+ ^{
m}2^{v}2^{
}= (m_{1} + m2)vf
(3-10)

* For example, consider two railroad cars rolling on a level, frictionless track (see Figure 1). The cars collide, become coupled, and roll together at a final velocity (vf). The momentum before and after the collision is expressed with Equation 3-10.*

# NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

# Summary

# MOMENTUM PRINCIPLES

# Momentum

## Force and Momentum

Conservation of Momentum

Summary

**Module 4 - Application of Newton's Laws**

*-Explanation- This module describes the effect of static and dynamic forces on objects and includes a discussion of the forces commonly encountered in a nuclear facility.*

*The frictional force (FK) is a force that opposes the direction of motion. This force is explained in more detail in the chapter on types of forces.*

* To solve this practical problem, assign values for each force as determined by data given in the problem. After assigning a sign convention (e.g., + for forces upward and to the right, - for forces downward and to the left), sum all forces to find the net force acting on the body. Using this net force information and appropriate equations, solve for the requested unknowns. A variation would be to find an unknown force acting on the body given sufficient information about the other forces acting on the body. The student will learn to solve specific examples using free-body diagrams in a later chapter.*

*Some advanced free-body diagrams for various types of systems are shown in Figure 4.*

# FORCE AND WEIGHT

## Introduction

Force

Weight

Summary

# FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS

## Constructing a Free-Body Diagram

Summary

# FORCE EQUILIBRIUM

## Net Force

Equilibrium

Summary

# TYPES OF FORCE

## Tensile and Compressive Forces

Friction

Centripetal Force

Centrifugal Force

Summary

**Module 5 - Energy, Work, and Power**

*-Explanation- This module defines energy, work, and power, identifies their various forms, and discusses the conservation of energy, work, and power including the measurement and calculation of each.*

# ENERGY AND WORK

## Energy

Potential Energy

## Kinetic Energy

Thermal Energy

Mechanical Energy

Work

Summary

# LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

## Conservation of Energy

Summary

# POWER

## Power

## Thermal Power

Mechanical Power

Summary

## DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Classical Physics $13.95

The *Classical Physics *handbook explains crucial concepts of energy, work and power, and how to convert, measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications and experiments. It also includes other incredibly important information on the units used to measure physical properties. For example, the handbook includes how vectors are used to show the net effect of various forces; it also covers Newton's Laws of motion, and how these laws affect motion and static and dynamic forces. This information will provide **YOU** with a foundation for applying engineering concepts. The *Classical **Physics *handbook presents enough information to provide **YOU** with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.