## Science / Chemistry / Mathematics Texts

## DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Electrical Science $17.95

The *Electrical Science *Handbook begins with a clear, concise introduction to important terminology and basic electrical concepts including Direct Current (DC) electrical circuits and more. Subsequent sections go on to introduce rules associated with the reactive components of inductance and capacitance, batteries, circuit arrangements, voltage production of various generators, voltage regulators electrical motor characteristics, transformer theory and electrical distribution systems. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts. At 450 pages, this handbook is of one of the finest books on electricity and electrical science that you’ll find. There is NO better book out there anywhere to keep on-hand as your personal reference book for detailed explanations of A/C-D/C, ohm, volts, ampere, power, watts, wire, math and just about anything else you might need to know about the electrical field. Understand Electricity!!! The *Electrical **Science *handbook presents more than enough information to provide **YOU** with the fundamental knowledge needed to understand the advanced theoretical concepts that drive forward frontiers of energy sciences.

**DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK**** ELECTRICAL SCIENCE **

**VOLUMES 1-4
**

The *Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks *consist of ten academic subjects, which include Mathematics; Classical Physics; Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow; Instrumentation and Control; Electrical Science; Material Science; Mechanical Science; Chemistry; Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings; and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. The handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules.

The *Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook *entitled *Electrical Science *was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts. The * Electrical Science *handbook presents more than enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.

The *Electrical Science * handbook consists of fifteen modules that are contained in four volumes. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook along with some selected figures included in the handbook.

# Volume 1 of 4

**Module 1 - Basic Electrical Theory**

*- Explanation- This module describes basic electrical concepts and introduces electrical terminology.*

# ATOM AND ITS FORCES

# The Atom

## Electrostatic Force

The First Law of Electrostatics

Electrostatic Field

Potential Difference

Free Electrons

Summary

# ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGY

## Conductors

Insulators

Resistors

Voltage

Current

## Real and Ideal Sources

Summary

# UNITS OF ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT

## System Internationale (SI) Metric System

Voltage

Current

Resistance

Ohm’s Law

Conductance

Inductance

Capacitance

Summary

# METHODS OF PRODUCING VOLTAGE (ELECTRICITY)

## Electrochemistry

Static Electricity

Magnetic Induction

Piezoelectric Effect

Thermoelectricity

Photoelectric Effect

Thermionic Emission

Summary

# MAGNETISM

## Magnetism

Magnetic Flux

Magnetic Flux Density

Magnetic Materials

Electromagnetism

Polarity of a Single Conductor

Magnetic Field and Polarity of a Coil

Magnetomotive Force

Field Intensity

Reluctance

Summary

# MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

## Magnetic Circuits

BH Magnetization Curve

Hysteresis

Magnetic Induction

Faraday’s Law of Induced Voltage

Lenz’s Law

Summary

**Module 2 - Basic DC Theory**

*-Explanation- This module describes the basic concepts of direct current (DC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology.*

*Parallel circuits * *are those circuits which have two or more components connected across the same voltage source (Figure 17). Resistors R1, R2, and R3 are in parallel with each other and the source. Each parallel path is a branch with its own individual current. When the current leaves the source V, part I1 of IT will flow through R1; part I2 will flow through R2; and part I3 will flow through R3. Current through each branch can be different; however, voltage throughout the circuit will be equal.*

*V=V1=V2=V3.*

# DC SOURCES

## Batteries

DC Generator

Thermocouples

Rectifiers

Forward Bias

Reverse Bias

Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit

Full-Wave Rectifier Circuit

Summary

# DC CIRCUIT TERMINOLOGY

## Schematic Diagram

One-Line Diagram

Block Diagram

Wiring Diagram

Resistivity

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

Electric Circuit

Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit

Equivalent Resistance

Summary

# BASIC DC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

## Series Resistance

Parallel Currents

Resistance in Parallel

Simplified Formulas

Voltage Divider

Current Division

Summary

# VOLTAGE POLARITY AND CURRENT DIRECTION

## Conventional and Electron Flow

Polarities

Summary

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

Kirchhoff’s Laws

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

## Applying Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Summary

# DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## Loop Equations

Node Equations

Series-Parallel Circuit Analysis

Y and Delta Network Calculation

Summary

# DC CIRCUIT FAULTS

## Open Circuit (Series)

Open Circuit (Parallel)

Short Circuit (Series)

Short Circuit (Parallel)

Summary

# Volume 2 of 4

# Module 3 - DC Circuits

*-Explanation- This module introduces the rules associated with the reactive components of inductance and capacitance and how they affect DC circuits.*

# INDUCTANCE

## Inductors

Summary

# CAPACITANCE

## Capacitor

Capacitance

Types of Capacitors

Capacitors in Series and Parallel

Capacitive Time Constant

Summary

**Module 4 - Batteries **

*-Explanation- This module introduces batteries and describes the types of cells used, circuit arrangements, and associated hazards.*

*Specific gravity is measured with a hydrometer. A simple hydrometer consists of a glass float inside a glass tube, as shown in Figure 1. The hydrometer float is weighted at one end and sealed at both ends. A scale calibrated in specific gravity is positioned lengthwise along the body of the float. The float is placed inside the glass tube, and the fluid to be tested is drawn into the tube. As the fluid is drawn into the tube, the hydrometer float will sink to a certain level in the fluid. The extent to which the hydrometer float protrudes above the level of the fluid depends on the specific gravity of the fluid. The reading on the float scale at the surface of the fluid is the specific gravity of the fluid.*

__Series Cells__

* When several cells are connected in series (Figure 7), the total voltage output of the battery is equal to the sum of the individual cell voltages. In the example of the battery in Figure 7, the four 1.5V cells provide a total of 6 volts. When we connect cells in series, the positive terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of the next cell. The current flow through a battery connected in series is the same as for one cell.*

# BATTERY TERMINOLOGY

## Voltaic Cell

Battery

Electrode

Electrolyte

Specific Gravity

Ampere-Hour

Summary

BATTERY THEORY

Batteries

Discharge and Charging of Lead-Acid Battery

Summary

# BATTERY OPERATIONS

## Series Cells

Parallel Cells

Primary Cell

Secondary Cells

Capacity

Internal Resistance

Shelf Life

Charge and Discharge

Summary

# TYPES OF BATTERIES

## Wet and Dry Cells

Carbon-Zinc Cell

Alkaline Cell

Nickel-Cadmium Cell

Edison Cell

Mercury Cell

Summary

# BATTERY HAZARDS

## Shorted Cell

Gas Generation

Battery Temperature

Summary

**Module 5 - DC Generators**

*-Explanation- This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics.*

# DC EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY

## Terminal Voltage

Counter-Electromotive Force

Applied Voltage

Commutation

Summary

# DC EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION

## Armature

Rotor

Stator

Field

Summary

# DC GENERATOR THEORY

## Voltage Production

Theory of Operation

Commutator Action

Field Excitation

Terminal Voltage

DC Generator Ratings

Internal Losses

Copper Losses

Eddy-Current Losses

Hysteresis Losses

Mechanical Losses

Summary

#

DC GENERATOR CONSTRUCTION

## Shunt-Wound DC Generators

Series-Wound DC Generators

Compound Generators

Summary

# ** Module 6 - DC Motors**

*-Explanation- This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control, applications, and load characteristics.*

Above the conductor on the left, the field caused by the conductor is in the opposite direction of the main field, and therefore, opposes the main field. Below the conductor on the left, the field caused by the conductor is in the same direction as the main field, and therefore, aids the main field. The net result is that above the conductor the main field is weakened, or flux density is decreased; below the conductor the field is strengthened, or flux density is increased. A force is developed on the conductor that moves the conductor in the direction of the weakened field (upward).

# DC MOTOR THEORY

## Inducing a Force on a Conductor

Theory of Operation

Torque

Generator Action in a Motor

DC Motor Speed

Summary

# TYPES OF DC MOTORS

## DC Motor Connections

Shunt-Wound Motor Operation

Shunt-Wound Motor Applications

Series-Wound Motor

Series-Wound Motor Applications

Compounded Motor

Summary

# DC MOTOR OPERATION

## Starting of DC Motors

DC Motor Ratings

Summary

#

Volume 3 of 4

# ** Module 7 - Basic AC Theory**

*-Explanation- This module describes the basic concepts of alternating current (AC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology.*

# AC GENERATION

## Development of a Sine-Wave Output

Summary

# AC GENERATION ANALYSIS

## Effective Values

Phase Angle

Voltage Calculations

Current Calculations

Frequency Calculations

Summary

#

** Module 8 - AC Reactive Components**

*-Explanation- This module describes inductance and capacitance and their effects on AC circuits.*

# INDUCTANCE

## Inductive Reactance

Voltage and Current Phase Relationships in an Inductive Circuit

# CAPACITANCE

## Capacitors

Capacitive Reactance

Summary

# IMPEDANCE

## Impedance

Impedance in R-L Circuits

Impedance in R-C Circuits

Impedance in R-C-L Circuits

Summary

# RESONANCE

## Resonant Frequency

Series Resonance

Parallel Resonance

Summary

#

** Module 9 - AC Power**

*-Explanation- This module presents power calculations for single-phase and three-phase AC circuits and includes the power triangle concept.*

*Three-phase equipment (motors, transformers, etc.) weighs less than single-phase equipment of the same power rating. They have a wide range of voltages and can be used for single-phase loads. Three-phase equipment is smaller in size, weighs less, and is more efficient than single-phase equipment.*

Three-phase systems can be connected in two different ways. If the three common ends of each phase are connected at a common point and the other three ends are connected to a 3ö line, it is called a wye, or Y-, connection (Figure 11). If the three phases are connected in series to form a closed loop, it is called a delta connection.

# POWER TRIANGLE

## Power Triangle

Apparent Power

True Power

Reactive Power

Total Power

Power Factor

Power in Series R-L Circuit

Power in Parallel R-L Circuit

Power in Series R-C Circuit

Power in Parallel R-C Circuit

Power in Series R-C-L Circuit in Parallel R-C-L Circuit

Summary

# THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

## Three-Phase Systems

Power in Balanced 3ö Loads

Unbalanced 3ö Loads

Summary

#

** Module 10 - AC Generators**

-Explanation- This module describes the operating characteristics of AC generators and includes terminology, methods of voltage production, and methods of paralleling AC generation sources.

# AC GENERATOR COMPONENTS

## Field

Armature

Prime Mover

Rotor

Stator

Slip Rings

Summary

# AC GENERATOR THEORY

## Theory of Operation

Losses in an AC Generator

Hysteresis Losses

Mechanical Losses

fficiency

Summary

# AC GENERATOR OPERATION

## Ratings

Paralleling AC Generators

Types of AC Generators

Three-Phase AC Generators

AC Generator Connections

Summary

#

** Module 11 - Voltage Regulators**

*-Explanation- This module describes the basic operation and application of voltage regulators.*

# VOLTAGE REGULATORS

## Purpose

Block Diagram Description

Sensing Circuit

Reference Circuit

Comparison Circuit

Amplification Circuit

Signal Output Circuit

Feedback Circuit

Changing Output Voltage

Summary

#

Volume 4 of 4

# ** Module 12 - AC Motors**

*-Explanation- This module explains the theory of operation of AC motors and discusses the various types of AC motors and their application.*

*The induction motor rotor is made of a laminated cylinder with slots in its surface. The windings in the slots are one of two types. The most commonly used is the "squirrel-cage" rotor. This rotor is made of heavy copper bars that are connected at each end by a metal ring made of copper or brass. No insulation is required between the core and the bars because of the low voltages induced into the rotor bars. The size of the air gap between the rotor bars and stator windings necessary to obtain the maximum field strength is
small.*

# AC MOTOR THEORY

## Principles of Operation

Rotating Field

Torque Production

Slip

Torque

Summary

# AC MOTOR TYPES

## Induction Motor

Single-Phase AC Induction Motors

Synchronous Motors

Starting a Synchronous Motor

Field Excitation

Summary

#

**Module 13 - Transformers**

*-Explanation- This module introduces transformer theory and includes the types of transformers, voltage/current relationships, and application.*

# TRANSFORMER THEORY

# Mutual Induction

## Turns Ratio

Impedance Ratio

Efficiency

Theory of Operation

Voltage Ratio

Current Ratio

Three-Phase Transformer Connections

Delta Connection

Wye Connection

Combinations of Delta and Wye Transformer Connections

Transformer Losses and Efficiency

Transformer Operation Under No-Load

Coil Polarity

Summary

# TRANSFORMER TYPES

## Types of Transformers

Distribution Transformer

Power Transformer

Control Transformer

Auto Transformer

Isolation Transformer

Instrument Potential Transformer

Instrument Current Transformer

Summary

#

** Module 14 - Test Instruments and Measuring Devices**

*-Explanation- This module describes electrical measuring and test equipment and includes the parameters measured and the principles of operation of common instruments.*

*The most commonly used sensing mechanism used in DC ammeters, voltmeters, and ohm meters is a current-sensing device called a D’Arsonval meter movement (Figure 1). The D’Arsonval movement is a DC moving coil-type movement in which an electromagnetic core is suspended between the poles of a permanent magnet.*

* The current measured is directed through the coils of the electromagnet so that the magnetic field produced by the current opposes the field of the permanent magnet and causes rotation of the core. The core is restrained by springs so that the needle will deflect or move in proportion to the current intensity. The more current applied to the core, the stronger the opposing field, and the larger the deflection, up to the limit of the current capacity of the coil. When the current is interrupted, the opposing field collapses, and the needle is returned to zero by the restraining springs. The limit of the current that can be applied to this type movement is
usually less than one milliampre.*

# METER MOVEMENTS

## D’Arsonval Movement

Electrodynamometer Movement

Moving Iron Vane Movement

Summary

# VOLTMETERS

## Voltmeters

Summary

# AMMETERS

## Ammeters

Summary

# OHM METERS

## Ohm Meters

Summary

# WATTMETERS

## Wattmeters

## Three-Phase Wattmeter

Summary

# OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES

## Ampere-Hour Meter

Power Factor Meter

Ground Detector

Synchroscope

# TEST EQUIPMENT

## Multimeter

Megger

Summary

#

** Module 15 - Electrical Distribution Systems**

*-Explanation- This module describes basic electrical distribution systems and includes characteristics of system design to ensure personnel and equipment safety.*

*When the electrically-operated stored energy circuit breaker is tripped, the spring is recharged by the spring charging motor so that the breaker is ready for the next closing operation. The manually-operated circuit breaker closing springs are normally compressed by a hand crank just prior to operation of the breaker. Figure 6 shows a large air circuit breaker which is classified as a manually-operated stored energy circuit breaker. The closing springs are compressed by pulling downward on the large operating handle on the front of the breaker. Closing this circuit breaker is accomplished manually by depressing the small closing lever. Tripping this circuit breaker is done by means of the tripping lever, located at the bottom front of the breaker.*

# SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES

## Single (One-Line) Diagram

Commercial or Utility Power

Diesel Power

Failure-Free Power

Neutral Grounding

Voltage Class

Protective Relays

Overlapping Protective Zones

Fuses

Summary

# CIRCUIT BREAKERS

## Introduction

Low-Voltage Air Circuit Breakers

High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

Circuit Breaker Control

Summary

# MOTOR CONTROLLERS

## Motor Controllers

Manual Controllers

Magnetic Controller

Motor Controller Types and Operation

Summary

# WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING

## Introduction

Terminology

Single-Phase Power

Three-Phase Wiring Schemes

3-Wire, Three-Phase Delta System

4-Wire, Three-Phase Delta System

4-Wire, Three-Phase Wye System

Summary

# MOTOR CONTROLLERS

## Motor Controllers

Manual Controllers

Magnetic Controller

Motor Controller Types and Operation

## Summary

## DOE Fundamentals Handbook - Electrical Science $17.95

The *Electrical Science *Handbook begins with a clear, concise introduction to important terminology and basic electrical concepts including Direct Current (DC) electrical circuits and more. Subsequent sections go on to introduce rules associated with the reactive components of inductance and capacitance, batteries, circuit arrangements, voltage production of various generators, voltage regulators electrical motor characteristics, transformer theory and electrical distribution systems. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts. At 450 pages, this handbook is of one of the finest books on electricity and electrical science that you’ll find. There is NO better book out there anywhere to keep on-hand as your personal reference book for detailed explanations of A/C-D/C, ohm, volts, ampere, power, watts, wire, math and just about anything else you might need to know about the electrical field. Understand Electricity!!! The *Electrical **Science *handbook presents more than enough information to provide **YOU** with the fundamental knowledge needed to understand the advanced theoretical concepts that drive forward frontiers of energy sciences.